In this work, we often need to "make our case."  Below are peer-reviewed articles, reports, and other materials that demonstrate the need for our Wisdom and Wellbeing Work in healthcare work settings.  If you have any additional materials to add, please email Mary or Natalie.

Publications by our team

Nash, W. P., Westphal, R. J., Watson, P., Litz, B. T. (2010). Combat and Operational Stress First-Aid (COSFA) Training Manual. Washington, DC: U. S. Government.

Plews-Ogan, M., Bell, T.D., Townsend, G. Canterbury, R.J., & Wilkes, D.S. (2020). Acting wisely: Eliminating negative bias in medical education – Part 1: The fundamentals.  Academic Medicine, 95(12):S11-15.

Plews-Ogan, M., May, N., Owens, J., Ardelt, M., Shapiro, J., & Bell, S. K. (2016). Wisdom in medicine: What helps physicians after a medical error?. Academic Medicine, 91(2), 233–241.

Plews-Ogan, M., Owens, J. E., & May, N. B. (2013). Wisdom through adversity: Learning and growing in the wake of an error. Patient Education and Counseling, 91, 236–242.

Plews-Ogan, M., May, N., & Owens, J. (2012).  Choosing wisdom: Strategies and inspiration for growing through life-changing difficulties. Templeton Press.

Townsend, G., & Plews-Ogan, M. (2021). Stepping in: Responding to disrespectful behavior. Presentation at Joint Conference, AAMC Group on Diversity and Inclusion and Health Workforce Research.

Westphal, R. J. (2020). Psychosocial impact of trauma on the patient, family, and caregiver. In K. A. McQuillan & M. B. Flynn Makic (Eds.). Trauma Nursing: From resuscitation through rehabilitation (5th ed., pp. 316–331). Elsevier.

Burke S, Johnston K, Chiotta-McCollum N, May N, Schorling J, Plews-Ogan M. Building resilience & wisdom in clinical and translational researchers: A mixed-method study of a pilot curricular intervention.  Journal of Clinical and Translational Science, 3(s1), 63-63. 2019

Haizlip, J., May, N., Schorling, J., Williams, A., & Plews-Ogan, M. (2012). The negativity bias, medical education, and the culture of academic medicine: Why culture change is hard. Academic Medicine, 87(9), 1205–1209.

Reports on Clinician Well-Being

Federation of State Medical Boards. (2018).  Physician wellness and burnout.  Available at:    (accessed   June   18, 2020).

Health Policy Institute of Ohio. (2020, February 11). A call to action: Improving clinician wellbeing and patient care and safety.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2019). Taking action against clinician burnout: A systems approach to professional well‐being. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.


Articles, Chapters, and Books

Acosta, D., & Karp, D. (2018). Restorative justice as the Rx for mistreatment in academic medicine: applications to consider for learners, faculty, and staff. Academic Medicine, 93(3):353-356.

American Nurses Association. More than 32k Nurses Share Experiences from the Front Lines. Available online: share-experience-from-the-front-lines. (Accessed on 22 July 2020). 

Ardelt, M. (2004). Wisdom as expert knowledge system: A critical review of a contemporary operationalization of an ancient concept. Human Development, 47, 257–285.

Bodenheimer, T., & Sinsky, C. (2014). From triple to quadruple aim: care of the patient requires care of the provider. Annals of Family Medicine, 12:573–576.

Branch, W. T. Jr., & Mitchell, G. A. (2011). Wisdom in medicine. Pharos Alpha Omega Alpha Honor 50 Med Society, 74(3), 12–17.

Burrow, A. L. & Hill, P.L., Eds. (2020). The Ecology of Purposeful Living Across the Lifespan: Developmental, Educational, and Social Perspectives.  Springer.

Cajigal., S., & Scudder, L. (2017, October 18). Patient prejudice: When credentials aren't enough. Accessed April 7, 2020.

Crutcher, R.A., Szafran, O., Woloschuk, W., et al. (2011). Family medicine graduates’ perceptions of intimidation, harassment, and discrimination during residency training. BCM Medical Education, 11:88. doi:10.1186/1472-6920-11-88.

Davidson, J. E., Proudfoot, J., Lee, K., Terterian, G., & Zisook, S. (2020). A longitudinal analysis of nurse suicide in the United States (2005–2016) with recommendations for action. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing17(1), 6–15.

Davidson, J. R. T., & Foa, E. B. (Eds.). (1993). Posttraumatic stress disorder: DSM-IV and Beyond. American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

Dyrbye, L., Shanafelt, T. D., Sinsky, C. A., Cipriano, P. F., Bhatt, J., Ommaya, A., & Meyers, S. (2017, July 5). Burnout among health care professionals: A call to explore and address this underrecognized threat to safe, high-quality care. Perspectives. Retrieved from care-professionals-a-call-to-explore-and-address-this- underrecognized-threat-to-safe-high-quality-care/

Epstein, R.M. (2008). Reflection, perception and the acquisition of wisdom. Medical education42(11):1048-1050.

Feist, J., C. Feist, and P. Cipriano. (2020). Stigma Compounds the Consequences of Clinician Burnout During COVID-19: A Call to Action to Break the Culture of Silence. NAM Perspectives. Commentary, National Academy of Medicine, Washington, DC. https://doi. org/10.31478/202008b

Fontaine, D., Cunningham, T., & May, N. (2021). Self-care for new and student nurses. Sigma.

Garcia, C. L., Abreu, L. C., Ramos, J., Castro, C., Smiderle, F., Santos, J., & Bezerra, I. (2019). Influence of Burnout on Patient Safety: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 55(9), 553.

Goodman, M., & Schorling, J.B. (2012). A mindfulness course decreases burnout and improves well-being among healthcare providers.  International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 43:119-128

Goulia, P., Mantas, C., Dimitroula, D., Mantis, D., and Hyphantis, T. (2010). General hospital staff worries, perceived sufficiency of information and associated psychological distress during the A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. BMC Infect. Dis. 10:322. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-322

Haizlip, J., McCluney, C. Hernandez, M., Quatrara, B., & Brashers, V. (2020). Mattering: How organizations, patients, and peers can affect nurse burnout and engagement. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration50(5), 267–273.

Hanson, R. (2018). Resilient: How to grow an unshakable core of calm, strength, and happiness. Harmony Books.

Healthcare Workforce Data Center (HWDC).  (January 2021). Virginia’s Physician workforce.  

Hu, Y.Y., Ellis, R.J., Hewitt, D.B., et al. (2019). Discrimination, abuse, harassment, and burnout in surgical residency training. New England Journal of Medicine, 381:1741-52.

Linzer, M., Bitton, A., Tu, SP. et al. (2015). The end of the 15–20-minute primary care visit. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 30, 1584–1586.

May, N. B., Haizlip, J., & Plews-Ogan, M. (2020). Changing the conversation: Appreciative inquiry and appreciative practices in healthcare. In S. McNamee, M. M. Gergen, C. Camargo-Borges, & E. F. Rasera (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of social construction practice (pp. 464–475). SAGE Reference.

Mello, M. M., Greene, J. A., & Sharfstein, J. M. (2020). Attacks on public health officials during COVID-19. JAMA324(8), 741–742. 

Miller-Karas, E. (2015). Building resilience to trauma: The trauma and community resilience models. Routledge.

Mohammed, S., Peter, E., Killackey, T., & Maciver, J. (2021). The "nurse as hero" discourse in the COVID-19 pandemic: A poststructural discourse analysis. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 117, 103887.

Nembhard, I.M., Burns, L.R., & Shortell, S.M. (2020). Responding to Covid-19: Lessons from management research. NEJM Catalyst. DOI:10.1056/CAT.20.0111

Olson K. D. (2017). Physician Burnout-A Leading Indicator of Health System Performance?. Mayo Clinic proceedings, 92(11), 1608–1611.

Pearman, A., Hughes, M. L., Smith, E. L., Neupert, S. D. (2020).  Mental health challenges of United States healthcare professionals during COVID-19. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, pp. 2065.  DOI=10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02065

Prasad, K., McLoughlin, C., Stillman,M., Poplau, S., Goelz, E., Taylor, S., Nankivil, N., Brown, R., Linzer, M.,  Cappelucci, K., Barbouche, M., & Sinsky, C.A. (2021). Prevalence and correlates of stress and burnout among U.S. healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A national cross-sectional survey study, E Clinical Medicine, 35

Ripp, J., Peccoralo, L., & Charney, D. (2020). Attending to the emotional well-being of the health care workforce in a New York city health system during the COVID-19 pandemic. Academic Medicine, 95(8):1136–1139.

Rose, C. (2020). Am I part of the cure or am I part of the disease?: keeping coronavirus out when a doctor comes home. New England Journal of Medicine, 382: 1684–1685.

Shanafelt, T. D., Ripp, J., Brown, M. & Sinsky, C. A. (2020). Caring for healthcare workers during a crisis: Creating a resilient organization. AMA.

Shanafelt, T.D., Schein, E., Minor, L.B., Trockel, M., Schein, P., & Kirch, D. (2019). Healing the professional culture of medicine. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 94, (8):1556-1566,

Shapiro, J. & Galowitz, P. (2016). Peer support for clinicians: A programmatic approach. Academic Medicine, 91(9): 1200-1204.

Shechter, A., Diaz, F., Moise, N., et al. (2020). Psychological distress, coping behaviors, and preferences for support among New York healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. General Hospital Psychiatry, 66:1–8. 

Squires, A., M. Clark-Cutaia, M. Henderson, G. Arneson, and P. Resnik. 2020. Working paper: Working the frontlines of the COVID-19 pandemic: Perspectives of US nurses. New York: Rory Meyers College of Nursing. 

Stevens, L.A., DiAngi, Y.T., Schremp, J.D., Martorana, M.J., Miller, R.E., Lee, T.C., & Pageler, N.M. (2017). Designing an individualized EHR learning plan for providers. Applied Clinical Informatics, 8:924-935.

Tedeschi, R., & Calhoun, L. (1995). Trauma and transformation: Growing in the aftermath of suffering. SAGE Publications.

Thomas, L.R., Ripp, J.A., & West, C.P. (2018). Charter on physician well-being.  JAMA, 319(15):1541-1542.

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. National Center for PTSD. Accessed August 14, 2021.

U.S. Marine Corps & U.S. Navy. (2016). Combat and Operational Stress Control (COSC), MCTP 3-30E. Quantico, VA: Marine Corps Combat Development Command.

Velana, M., & Rinkenauer, G. (2021). Individual-level interventions for decreasing job-related stress and enhancing coping strategies among nurses: A systematic review. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 708696.

Virginia Department of Health Professions (VDHP). (2020, May).  Virginia Healthcare Workforce Briefs.  Healthcare Workforce Data Center. Series 1, Issue 98.

Virginia Department of Health Professions (VDHP). (2020, June). Virginia Healthcare workforce briefs: indicators from the Bureau of economic analysis regional economic account.  Series 3, Issue 35

Wald, H. S., & Ruddy, M. (2021). Surreal becomes real: Ethical dilemmas related to the COVID-19 pandemic and professional identity formation of health professionals. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 41(2): 124-129. doi: 10.1097/CEH.0000000000000346

Wheeler, M., de Bourmont, S., Paul-Emile, K., et al. (2019). Physician and trainee experiences with patient bias. JAMA Internal Medicine, 179(12):1678–1685. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.4122.